Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
  • Publication
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    Prädiktoren der Delinquenz bei adoleszenten Muslimen
    (2019)
    Beller, Johannes 
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    Hosser, Daniela 
  • Publication
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    Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Refugees: Comparison of the Diagnostic Efficiency of Two Self-Rating Measures of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    (2019)
    Wulfes, Nele 
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    Del Pozo, Melina 
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    Buhr-Riehm, Brigitte 
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    Heinrichs, Nina 
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    There is a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee population. In order to identify affected individuals and offer targeted help, there is an urgent need for easily understandable, reliable, valid, and efficient screening measures. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic efficiency of the Process of Recognition and Orientation of Torture Victims in European Countries to Facilitate Care and Treatment (PROTECT) questionnaire (PQ) to that of the eight-item short-form Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS-8) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Using structured clinical interviews, the prevalence rates of PTSD and major depression episode (MDE) were assessed in a refugee sample (N = 118), and receiver operating characteristic analyses were determined and compared. Of participants in the sample, 29.7%, 95% CI [22.0%, 38.5%], were diagnosed with PTSD and 33.1%, 95% CI [24.4%, 41.9%], were diagnosed with MDE. The area under the curve (AUC) for all measures was moderate, AUCs = 0.79-0.86; hence, measures did not differ in terms of their discriminatory abilities. Using the favored cutoff points, sensitivity and specificity were 80-97% and 60-70%, respectively. In terms of their discriminatory abilities, none of the investigated measures can be favored more than the others. Thus, for detection of these two disorders, the shorter PQ could be more efficient. Because the high co-occurrence of PTSD and MDE might limit the explanatory power of results in the present study, the findings should be cross-validated in the future. Spanish Abstracts by Asociación Chilena de Estrés Traumático (ACET) Tamizaje para Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático en Refugiados: Comparación de la Eficiencia Diagnóstica de 2 Medidas de auto-reporte para el Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático TAMIZAJE PARA TEPT EN REFUGIADOS Hay una alta prevalencia de Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) en la población de refugiados. Se requieren con urgencia medidas de tamizaje fácilmente comprensibles, confiables, válidas y eficientes, para identificar a los individuos afectados y ofrecer ayuda focalizada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar la eficiencia diagnóstica del cuestionario PROTECT (PQ) con la de la forma corta de 8 ítems de la Escala de Diagnóstico Postraumático (PDS-8, por sus siglas en inglés) y del Cuestionario sobre la Salud del Paciente (PHQ-9, por sus siglas en inglés). Mediante el uso de entrevistas clínicas estructuradas, se evaluaron las tasas de prevalencia de TEPT y Episodio Depresivo Mayor (EDM) en una muestra de refugiados (n=118), además de determinar y comparar los análisis de las características operativas del receptor. De los participantes en la muestra, 29.7%, IC 95% [22.0%, 38.5%], fueron diagnosticados con TEPT y 33.1%, IC 95% [24.4%, 41.9%] fueron diagnosticados con EDM. El área bajo la curva (AUC en sus siglas en inglés) para todas las mediciones fue moderada, AUCs=.79-.86; por lo tanto, las mediciones no difirieron en términos de su capacidad discriminatoria. Usando los puntos de corte favorecidos, la sensibilidad y especificidad fueron 80-97% y 60-70% respectivamente. En términos de su capacidad discriminatoria, ninguna de las medidas investigadas puede ser favorecida más que las otras. Por lo tanto, al detectar estos dos trastornos, la PQ breve puede ser más eficiente. Dado que la co-ocurrencia de TEPT y EDM podría limitar el poder explicatorio de los resultados del presente estudio, los resultados deben ser validados de forma cruzada en el futuro. Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by the Asian Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (AsianSTSS) 簡體及繁體中文撮要由亞洲創傷心理研究學會翻譯 Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Refugees: Comparison of the Diagnostic Efficiency of Two Self-Rating Measures for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Traditional Chinese 標題: 為難民進行創傷後壓力症篩查:對比兩種創傷後壓力症自評測量工具的診斷效率 撮要: 創傷後壓力症(PTSD)在難民當中極為普遍。我們急切需要一個容易理解、可靠、既有效又有效率的篩查工具༌以找出受影響人士並提供針對性協助。本研究旨在對比PROTECT問卷(PQ)、8個項目的創傷後壓力診斷量表(PDS-8)簡要版、及病人健康狀況問卷(PHQ-9)的診斷效率。我們透過與難民樣本(N = 118)進行結構性臨床面談༌評估樣本的PTSD普遍率與嚴重抑鬱節段(MDE);亦找出接收者操作特徵༌並進行對比分析。樣本中༌29.7%人士被診斷患有PTSD(95% CI [22.0%, 38.5 %])༌33.1%患有MDE(95% CI [24.4%, 41.9%])。所有測量中༌曲線下面積(AUC)均為中等(AUCs = .79 -.86)。因此༌測量工具在判別效能方面並無差別。採用偏愛的取錄點檢視༌敏感性與特殊性分別為80-97%與60-70%。在判別效能方面༌檢視的測量工具中並無任何一種表現特別好。因此༌當對以上兩種疾病作篩查時༌採用較簡短的PQ可能更有效率。由於PTSD與MDE的共病率高༌有可能削弱了本研究的解釋力༌未來研究應與是次研究的發現作交叉驗證。 Simplified Chinese 标题: 为难民进行创伤后压力症筛查:对比两种创伤后压力症自评测量工具的诊断效率 撮要: 创伤后压力症(PTSD)在难民当中极为普遍。我们急切需要一个容易理解、可靠、既有效又有效率的筛查工具༌以找出受影响人士并提供针对性协助。本研究旨在对比PROTECT问卷(PQ)、8个项目的创伤后压力诊断量表(PDS-8)简要版、及病人健康状况问卷(PHQ-9)的诊断效率。我们透过与难民样本(N = 118)进行结构性临床面谈༌评估样本的PTSD普遍率与严重抑郁节段(MDE);亦找出接收者操作特征༌并进行对比分析。样本中༌29.7%人士被诊断患有PTSD(95% CI [22.0%, 38.5 %])༌33.1%患有MDE(95% CI [24.4%, 41.9%])。所有测量中༌曲线下面积(AUC)均为中等(AUCs = .79 -.86)。因此༌测量工具在判别效能方面并无差别。采用偏爱的取录点检视༌敏感性与特殊性分别为80-97%与60-70%。在判别效能方面༌检视的测量工具中并无任何一种表现特别好。因此༌当对以上两种疾病作筛查时༌采用较简短的PQ可能更有效率。由于PTSD与MDE的共病率高༌有可能削弱了本研究的解释力༌未来研究应与是次研究的发现作交叉验证。.
  • Publication
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    Opfer von Gewalttaten im Verfahren nach dem Opferentschädigungsgesetz
    (2019)
    Franke, Stefanie 
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    Kalweit, Christine 
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    Frey, Annelene 
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    Heddergott, Hanna 
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    Mitschke, Astrid-Christine 
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    Wehrmeyer, Matthias 
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    Heinrichs, Nina 
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    AIM OF THE STUDY Coping with psychological trauma plays a central role in victims of acts of violence. The Victim Reparation Law (in German: Opferentschädigungsgesetz, OEG) provides services for the reparation of participation. To further improve the care of the affected persons, the characteristics of the victims were determined in relation to the acts and the perpetrators. METHOD 312 OEG-files of adult victims were sighted. On the basis of a system of categories, demographic data, trauma specific and health-related characteristics of the victims, relevant characteristics of the perpetrators and the violence, as well as predictors for the time difference between the violent act and the application were determined. RESULTS Mostly women (71%) were affected by acts of violence. 49% of the affected persons suffered from physical and 87% from psychological impairment (64% of these from a posttraumatic stress disorder). 55% of the acts of violence were sex crimes, 47% were bodily injuries and in 44% additional psychological abuse existed. The perpetrators were often connected to the victims. 42% of the offenses concerned domestic violence. Time difference between the act of violence and the request for help which is provided by law variated between 0 and 52 years. 50% made use of help within one year, further 15.2% within five years. In 34.3% of cases, time difference was longer than 5 years. In case of serial and severe traumatizations, depression and close connections between victim and perpetrator help provided by law was called for only late. CONCLUSION Many victims of acts of violence acts are psychologically traumatized. In order to prevent a traumatization from becoming a permanent health disorder, the offering of early evidence-based specialist or psychological acute therapy (e. g., in trauma outpatient clinics) ought to be optimized. ZIEL DER STUDIE Bei Opfern von Gewalttaten spielt die Bewältigung des psychischen Traumas oft eine zentrale Rolle. Das Opferentschädigungsgesetz (OEG) sieht Leistungen zur Wiederherstellung der Teilhabefähigkeit vor. Um die Versorgung Betroffener weiter zu verbessern, wurden Charakteristika der Opfer in Abhängigkeit von Taten und Tätern ermittelt. METHODIK Anhand eines Kategoriensystems wurden aus 312 OEG-Akten Erwachsener demografische Angaben, traumaspezifische und gesundheitliche Merkmale der Opfer, relevante Merkmale der Täter, der Gewalt sowie Prädiktoren der Zeitdifferenz zwischen Tat und Antragstellung erfasst. ERGEBNISSE Zumeist waren Frauen betroffen (71%). Bei 49% der Betroffenen lagen körperliche, bei 87% psychische Schädigungsfolgen vor (davon bei 64% eine posttraumatische Belastungsstörung). 55% der Gewalttaten waren Sexualdelikte, 47% Körperverletzung, bei 44% lag zusätzlich psychische Misshandlung vor. Die Täter kamen häufig aus dem Umfeld des Opfers. 42% der Delikte betrafen häusliche Gewalt. Die Zeitdauer zwischen der Schädigung und OEG-Antragstellung variierte zwischen 0 und 52 Jahren (M=7,81, SD=12,48). 50% der Anträge wurden innerhalb eines Jahres und weitere 15,2% innerhalb von 5 Jahren gestellt. Bei 34,3% betrug die Zeitdauer über 5 Jahre. Bei seriellen bzw. schweren Traumatisierungen, Depression und enger Beziehung zwischen Opfer und Täter wurde die gesetzlich vorgesehene Hilfe erst spät in Anspruch genommen. SCHLUSSFOLGERUNG Viele Opfer von Gewalttaten sind psychisch traumatisiert. Um zu verhindern, dass sich Traumafolgen als dauerhafte Gesundheitsstörungen verfestigen, sollte das Angebot frühzeitiger professioneller evidenzbasierter Akuttherapie (z. B. in Trauma-Ambulanzen) weiter optimiert werden.
  • Publication
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    Überprüfung der deutschen Kurzversion der „New Sexual Satisfaction Scale“ (NSSS-SD) in einer repräsentativen Stichprobe
    (2019)
    Hoy, Madita 
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    Strauss, Bernhard 
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    Brenk-Franz, Katja 
    The New Sexual Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) is an internationally established questionnaire for assessing sexual satisfaction. It is based on 2 subscales (ego-centered and partner- and sexual activity-centered sexual satisfaction). The aim of the study was to evaluate the German short version of the questionnaire (NSSS-SD) in a representative sample (N=2524). In addition, relationships between sexual satisfaction and sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education) and characteristics of partnership and sexuality (relationship satisfaction, coitus frequency, number of sexual partners) were examined. The internal consistency of the NSSS-SD was excellent (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.96). The 2-dimensional structure of the long version could not be confirmed for the short version. One factor could be extracted, which explains 68.94% of the variance. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences in sexual satisfaction with respect to age, education, relationship satisfaction and coitus frequency. Sex and number of sexual partners did not influence sexual satisfaction. The NSSS-SD is a reliable questionnaire of sexual satisfaction for sexually active individuals. For sexually inactive individuals, a change of the instruction or a visual analogue scale might be useful. Die New Sexual Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) ist ein international etablierter Fragebogen zur Erfassung der sexuellen Zufriedenheit mit ursprünglich 2 Subskalen (selbstfokussierte bzw. partner-/aktivitätenfokussierte sexuelle Zufriedenheit). Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die deutsche Kurzversion des Fragebogens (NSSS-SD) im Rahmen einer Repräsentativerhebung in Deutschland (N=2524) zu überprüfen. Zusätzlich wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen sexueller Zufriedenheit und soziodemografischen Faktoren (Alter, Geschlecht, Bildungsstand) sowie Aspekten der Partnerschaft und Sexualität (Beziehungszufriedenheit, Koitusfrequenz, Anzahl der Sexualpartner) untersucht. Die interne Konsistenz der NSSS-SD lag bei 0,96. Die 2-dimensionale Struktur der Langversion konnte für die Kurzversion nicht bestätigt werden. Es konnte ein Faktor extrahiert werden, welcher 68,94% der Varianz aufklärt. Varianzanalysen ergaben signifikante Unterschiede in der sexuellen Zufriedenheit bezüglich Alter, Bildungsstand, Beziehungszufriedenheit und Koitusfrequenz, nicht aber bezogen auf Geschlecht oder Anzahl der Sexualpartner. Die NSSS-SD ermöglicht die Messung der sexuellen Zufriedenheit für sexuell aktive Personen. Für sexuell inaktive Personen sollte eine Änderung der Instruktion in Betracht gezogen oder eine visuelle Analogskala angeboten werden.
  • Publication
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  • Publication
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    Minderjährige Opfer von Gewalttaten im Verfahren des Opferentschädigungsgesetzes
    (2018)
    Hellwig, Katharina 
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    Franke, Stefanie 
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    Wehrmeyer, Matthias 
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    Heinrichs, Nina 
    Objective A descriptive analysis of victim compensation applications for children and adolescents as well as sociodemographic and trauma-specific information concerning victims and perpetrators. Method We did analysis of 100 victim-compensation application files based on a self-developed category system. Results The files included solely interpersonal trauma, 59 % of which are type II trauma. The most frequent form is sexual violence. The perpetrators stem mostly from children’s homes or peripherals. 79 % of the victims received a diagnosis of a mental disorder, most often posttraumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Sexually abused children and adolescents make up the majority of the target population in OEG-related trauma outpatient units. Such outpatient units should therefore offer a specific expertise in treating sexually abused children and adolescents.
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    Short-Term-Effectiveness of a Relationship Education Program for Distressed Military Couples, in the Context of Foreign Assignments for the German Armed Forces
    (2018) ;
    Kliem, Sören 
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    Zimmermann, Peter 
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    Kowalski, Jens 
    This study examines the short-term effectiveness of a relationship education program designed for military couples. Distressed couples were randomly placed in either a wait-list control group or an intervention group. We conducted training sessions before a 3-month foreign assignment, and refresher courses approximately 6-week post-assignment. We analyzed the dyadic data of 32 couples, using hierarchical linear modeling in a two-level model. Reduction in unresolved conflicts was found in the intervention group, with large pre-post effects for both partners. Relationship satisfaction scores were improved, with moderate-to-large effects only for soldiers, rather than their partners. Post-follow-up effect sizes suggested further improvement in the intervention group. Future research should examine the long-term effectiveness of this treatment.
  • Publication
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    The latent nature of prolonged grief
    (2018)
    Kliem, Sören 
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    Lohmann, Anna 
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    Mößle, Thomas 
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    Brähler, Elmar 
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    Kersting, Anette 
    Individuals suffering from prolonged grief disorder (PGD) show severe grief reactions after the death of a significant other, even beyond a period of grieving that is within a person's cultural and religious context. In addition to this core element, PGD can manifest in various ways. Symptoms may include persistent preoccupation, intense emotional pain, or impairment in important life domains. The symptoms, furthermore, have to be of culturally or religiously inappropriate extent or severity, taking into account different norms of grieving. PGD is discussed as a distinct diagnostic category in the revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Nosology of PGD has been highly debated surrounding the suggested inclusion in the DSM-5, which had been declined due to insufficient evidence. This paper addresses the latent nature of PGD. Using a short form of the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), we applied three popular taxometric methods: MAXEIG, MAMBAC and L-Mode. Data stemmed from a subsample of N = 1445 bereaved individuals that participated in a large representative German population survey (N = 2520). The analysis strongly indicated a dimensional latent structure of PGD. Implications of the conceptualization of PGD on a continuum are discussed, regarding measurement, diagnosis, etiology and future research.
  • Publication
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    „Seefahrercamp“
    (2018) ;
    Ulbrich, Laura 
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    Ahrens-Eipper, Sabine 
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    Nelius, Katrin