Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
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    Häusliche Gewalt und ihre psychischen Folgen während der COVID-19-Pandemie – Zentrale Befunde aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum
    (2023-07-10)
    Lotzin, Annett 
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    Flechsenhar, Aleya 
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    Garthus-Niegel, Susan 
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    Georg, Anna Katharina 
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    Holl, Julia 
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    von Hülsen, Leonie 
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    Kenntemich, Laura 
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    Kliem, Sören 
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    Mack, Judith T. 
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    Mojahed, Amera 
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    Nunius, Sabine 
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    Schröder, Johanna 
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    Seitz, Katja 
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    Volkert, Jana 
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    Zrnic Novakovic, Irina 
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    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte 
    Die Auswirkungen traumatischer Erfahrungen auf die psychische Gesundheit während der COVID-19-Pandemie sind im deutschsprachigen Raum bisher unzureichend diskutiert worden. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde im Auftrag der Deutschsprachigen Gesellschaft für Psychotraumatologie (DeGPT) eine Arbeitsgruppe aus wissenschaftlich und praktisch tätigen Fachkolleginnen und -kollegen gebildet. Ziel der Arbeitsgruppe war es, zentrale Forschungsbefunde zur Prävalenz von häuslicher Gewalt und damit einhergehende psychische Belastungen während der COVID-19-Pandemie im deutschsprachigen Raum zusammenzufassen und deren Implikationen zu diskutieren. Darüber hinaus sollten Zusammenhänge zwischen vorbestehenden Kindheitstraumata und psychischen Belastungen während der Pandemie beleuchtet werden. Hierzu wurde die vorliegende narrative Übersichtsarbeit erstellt. Die Ergebnisse der durchgeführten Studien weisen auf hohe Prävalenzen häuslicher Gewalt während der COVID-19-Pandemie hin, die jedoch überwiegend den Prävalenzen vor der Pandemie entsprechen. Erwachsene, die während der Pandemie oder bereits in ihrer Kindheit oder Jugend interpersonaler Gewalt ausgesetzt waren, wiesen während der Pandemie eine erhöhte psychische Belastung im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen ohne Gewalterfahrungen auf. Eine Reihe an Faktoren (z. B. weibliches Geschlecht, geringe Sozialkontakte) erhöhten das Risiko für psychische Belastung und Symptome einer posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung während der Pandemie. Nach diesen Ergebnissen stellen Menschen mit aktuellen, aber auch zurückliegenden Gewalterfahrungen eine vulnerable Gruppe dar, die während einer Pandemie besondere Unterstützungsbedarfe aufweist.
      15
  • Publication
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    The Effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Domestic Violence in Germany: A Comparison of Three Representative Population Surveys
    (2023-06)
    Kliem, Sören 
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    Lohmann, Anna 
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    Baier, Dirk 
    The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound societal and economic effects. Concerns were raised that domestic violence might increase because of the enacted infection control measures. Previous findings on this issue have been contradictory. Since existing studies mainly rely on official reports, administrative data, helpline calls, or retrospective measures, their findings are likely to prove unreliable. Few population-based surveys include pre-pandemic data, limiting their ability to test for causality regarding increasing violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare findings from population-representative surveys on the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and violence against children (VAC) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the data of N = 3,639 individuals living with a romantic partner and N = 1,313 parents living with at least one of their children from three German representative population surveys, we estimated average marginal effects for the temporal trends (i.e., pre vs. post infection control measures) of domestic violence separately for males and females. To minimize bias across survey waves, inverse probability weighting was used. Results show no statistically significant increase in either physical or psychological forms of IPV or VAC as a result of the implementation of COVID measures. On the contrary, the 1-year prevalence was decreasing for certain forms of violence. Our findings suggest that the assessment of the consequences of infection control measures needs an empirical basis. Further research should be conducted using high-quality data sources. Therefore, the present study should be considered a stepping stone for ongoing research efforts to examine the consequences of pandemic-related infection control measures on the general population.
      4
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  • Publication
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    Slapping Them Into Heaven?
    (2021)
    Beller, Johannes 
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    Kliem, Sören 
    Support for corporal punishment (CP) has been associated with religiosity. Yet, little is known about which aspects of religiosity predict support for CP. To close this gap in the literature, we investigated how individual and social religiosity, religious fundamentalism, belief in heaven, belief in hell, and demographic variables contribute for the support of CP. We analyzed population-based cross-sectional data, as gathered in the General Social Survey, with a final sample size of n = 671. Using ordinal regression, we found that increased support for CP was best predicted by belief in heaven and religious fundamentalism. These results suggest that support for CP seems to emerge mainly from absolute belief in divine reward and retribution. Religious parents might endorse CP as a means to ensure that their children enter heaven.
      3
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  • Publication
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    Short-Term-Effectiveness of a Relationship Education Program for Distressed Military Couples, in the Context of Foreign Assignments for the German Armed Forces
    (2018) ;
    Kliem, Sören 
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    Zimmermann, Peter 
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    Kowalski, Jens 
    This study examines the short-term effectiveness of a relationship education program designed for military couples. Distressed couples were randomly placed in either a wait-list control group or an intervention group. We conducted training sessions before a 3-month foreign assignment, and refresher courses approximately 6-week post-assignment. We analyzed the dyadic data of 32 couples, using hierarchical linear modeling in a two-level model. Reduction in unresolved conflicts was found in the intervention group, with large pre-post effects for both partners. Relationship satisfaction scores were improved, with moderate-to-large effects only for soldiers, rather than their partners. Post-follow-up effect sizes suggested further improvement in the intervention group. Future research should examine the long-term effectiveness of this treatment.
  • Publication
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    The latent nature of prolonged grief
    (2018)
    Kliem, Sören 
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    Lohmann, Anna 
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    Mößle, Thomas 
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    Brähler, Elmar 
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    Kersting, Anette 
    Individuals suffering from prolonged grief disorder (PGD) show severe grief reactions after the death of a significant other, even beyond a period of grieving that is within a person's cultural and religious context. In addition to this core element, PGD can manifest in various ways. Symptoms may include persistent preoccupation, intense emotional pain, or impairment in important life domains. The symptoms, furthermore, have to be of culturally or religiously inappropriate extent or severity, taking into account different norms of grieving. PGD is discussed as a distinct diagnostic category in the revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Nosology of PGD has been highly debated surrounding the suggested inclusion in the DSM-5, which had been declined due to insufficient evidence. This paper addresses the latent nature of PGD. Using a short form of the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), we applied three popular taxometric methods: MAXEIG, MAMBAC and L-Mode. Data stemmed from a subsample of N = 1445 bereaved individuals that participated in a large representative German population survey (N = 2520). The analysis strongly indicated a dimensional latent structure of PGD. Implications of the conceptualization of PGD on a continuum are discussed, regarding measurement, diagnosis, etiology and future research.
  • Publication
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    Cognitive distortions in anorexia nervosa and borderline personality disorder
    (2018)
    Del Pozo, Melina 
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    Harbeck, Susanne 
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    Zahn, Sabine 
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    Kliem, Sören 
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    Thought-shape fusion (TSF) is a cognitive distortion associated with eating disorders (ED). A similar distortion, thought-abandonment fusion (TAbF), is assumed to occur in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study the specificity of TSF in participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) and TAbF in participants with BPD was examined. 63 patients completed questionnaires assessing the manifestation of trait-TAbF and trait-TSF, as well as relevant psychopathology. Nonparametric conditional inference trees were used to test for cognitive disorder-specificity. Participants with AN exhibited higher trait-TSF-scores than those with BPD, when participants with BPD and a co-occurring AN were removed. Trait-TSF in participants with AN seemed to be disorder-specific. Participants with BPD and a co-occurring AN had the highest TAbF-scores. The specificity hypothesis could only be partially confirmed for trait-TAbF: while participants with BPD and a co-occurring AN tended to have the highest trait-TAbF scores, high mean values could also be found in participants with AN. The results indicate that TAbF is not specific to BPD, but may also play a role in AN. Both distortions seem to play a role in the maintenance of the respective disorders.
  • Publication
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    Stationäre psychodynamisch orientierte multimodale Therapie von Patienten mit Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung
    (2018)
    Del Pozo, Melina 
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    Kliem, Sören 
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    Mestel, Robert 
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    Votsmeier-Röhr, Achim 
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    Psychodynamically oriented multimodal therapy approaches are efficacious for outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Until now, no study has reported the effectiveness, response, and dropout in a psychodynamic oriented multimodal therapy program for inpatients (PDOMT). In this study, we compared the results of 269 individuals seeking a 3-month inpatient treatment with previous studies for BPD inpatients by examining 269 individuals. The Borderline Personality Index (CUT-20-R) was used as the main outcome measure. Therapy outcome was defined in effect size (ES), response, and remission rates. In the pre-post comparison of the CUT-20-R, the ES was 0.74. The response and the remission rates were 34.6% and 2.6%. 50.6% of participants remained unchanged, 6.7% deteriorated, and 27.5% finished treatment prematurely. Male gender and patients with a dependent personality disorder increased the dropout risk. The results suggest that PDOMT might be effective for some, but not all BPD patients. Due to methodological shortcomings of the chosen strategy, future research should examine the effectiveness of PDOMT in a randomized controlled trial. Psychodynamisch orientierte multimodale Therapien haben sich in der ambulanten Behandlung der Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung (BPD) als wirksam erwiesen. Bisher hat keine Studie über Wirksamkeit, Response und Drop-out eines psychodynamisch orientierten multimodalen Therapieansatzes im stationären Setting (PDOMK) berichtet. In dieser Studie wurden die Ergebnisse von 269 Patienten, die an einer 3-monatigen stationären Therapie teilgenommen haben, mit Ergebnissen aus früheren Studien verglichen. Als wichtigster Indikator für den Therapieerfolg wurde das Borderline-Persönlichkeits-Inventar (CUT-20-R) herangezogen. Therapieerfolg wurde in Effektstärken (ES) sowie Response- und Remissionsraten ausgedrückt. Im Prä-Post-Vergleich des CUT-20-R betrug die ES 0,74. Die Responserate betrug 34,6% und die Remissionsrate 2,6%. 50,6% der teilnehmenden Patienten zeigten keine Veränderung in ihrer BPD-spezifischen Symptomatik, 6,7% verschlechterten sich und 27,5% beendeten die Therapie vorzeitig. Das Dropout-Risiko war bei Männern sowie Patienten mit einer abhängigen Persönlichkeitsstörung erhöht. Die Ergebnisse sprechen dafür, dass PDOMK bei einigen, jedoch nicht bei allen BPD-Patienten wirksam sein kann. Aufgrund der methodischen Einschränkungen dieser Studie sollten zukünftige Arbeiten die Wirksamkeit von PDOMK in einem randomisiert-kontrollierten Design untersuchen.
      3
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    Measuring Spousal Forgiveness
    (2017)
    Haversath, Julia 
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    Kliem, Sören 
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