Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Repeated and Interrupted Resistance Exercise Induces the Desensitization and Re-Sensitization of mTOR-Related Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle Fibers.
    (2022-05-12)
    Jacko, Daniel 
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    Schaaf, Kirill 
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    Masur, Lukas 
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    Windoffer, Hannes 
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    Aussieker, Thorben 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Zacher, Jonas 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
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    The acute resistance exercise (RE)-induced phosphorylation of mTOR-related signaling proteins in skeletal muscle can be blunted after repeated RE. The time frame in which the phosphorylation (p) of mTORS2448, p70S6kT421/S424, and rpS6S235/236 will be reduced during an RE training period in humans and whether progressive (PR) loading can counteract such a decline has not been described. (1) To enclose the time frame in which pmTORS2448, prpS6S235/236, and pp70S6kT421/S424 are acutely reduced after RE occurs during repeated RE. (2) To test whether PR will prevent that reduction compared to constant loading (CO) and (3) whether 10 days without RE may re-increase blunted signaling. Fourteen healthy males (24 ± 2.8 yrs.; 1.83 ± 0.1 cm; 79.3 ± 8.5 kg) were subjected to RE with either PR (n = 8) or CO (n = 6) loading. Subjects performed RE thrice per week, conducting three sets with 10–12 repetitions on a leg press and leg extension machine. Muscle biopsies were collected at rest (T0), 45 min after the first (T1), seventh (T7), 13th (T13), and 14th (X-T14) RE session. No differences were found between PR and CO for any parameter. Thus, the groups were combined, and the results show the merged values. prpS6S235/236 and pp70s6kT421/S424 were increased at T1, but were already reduced at T7 and up to T13 compared to T1. Ten days without RE re-increased prpS6S235/236 and pp70S6kT421/S424 at X-T14 to a level comparable to that of T1. pmTORS2448 was increased from T1 to X-T14 and did not decline over the training period. Single-fiber immunohistochemistry revealed a reduction in prpS6S235/236 in type I fibers from T1 to T13 and a re-increase at X-T14, which was more augmented in type II fibers at T13 (p < 0.05). The entity of myofibers revealed a high heterogeneity in the level of prpS6S235/236, possibly reflecting individual contraction-induced stress during RE. The type I and II myofiber diameter increased from T0 and T1 to T13 and X-T14 (p < 0.05) prpS6S235/236 and pp70s6kT421/S424 reflect RE-induced states of desensitization and re-sensitization in dependency on frequent loading by RE, but also by its cessation.
      9
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Effects of Endurance Exercise Bouts in Hypoxia, Hyperoxia, and Normoxia on mTOR-Related Protein Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle
    (2020)
    Przyklenk, Axel 
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    Aussieker, Thorben 
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    Gutmann, Boris 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Brinkmann, Christian 
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    Strüder, Heiko 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
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    Mierau, Andreas 
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    Przyklenk, A, Aussieker, T, Gutmann, B, Schiffer, T, Brinkmann, C, Strüder, HK, Bloch, W, Mierau, A, and Gehlert, S. Effects of endurance exercise bouts in hypoxia, hyperoxia, and normoxia on mTOR-related protein signaling in human skeletal muscle. J Strength Cond Res 34(8): 2276-2284, 2020-This study investigated the effects of short-term hypoxia (HY), hyperoxia (PER), and normoxia on anabolic signaling proteins in response to an acute bout of moderate endurance exercise (EEX) before and after an endurance exercise training intervention. Eleven healthy male subjects conducted one-legged cycling endurance exercise (3 × 30 min·wk for 4 weeks). One leg was trained under hypoxic (12% O2) or hyperoxic conditions (in a randomized cross-over design), and the other leg was trained in normoxia (20.9% O2) at the same relative workload. Musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were taken at baseline (T0) as well as immediately after the first (T1) and last (T2) training session to analyze anabolic signaling proteins and the myofiber cross-sectional area (FCSA). No significant differences were detected for FCSA between T0 and T2 under all oxygen conditions (p > 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for BNIP3, phosphorylated RSK1, ERK1/2, FoxO3a, mTOR, and S6K1 between all conditions and time points. Phosphorylated Akt/PKB decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at T1 in PER and at T2 in HY and PER. Phosphorylated rpS6 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at T1 only in PER, whereas nonsignificant increases were shown in HY at T2 (p = 0.10). Despite no significant regulations, considerable reductions in eEF2 phosphorylation were detected in HY at T1 and T2 (p = 0.11 and p = 0.12, respectively). Short-term hypoxia in combination with moderate EEX induces favorable acute anabolic signaling responses in human skeletal muscle.
      2
  • Publication
    Open Access
    Seven Weeks of Jump Training with Superimposed Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Does Not Affect the Physiological and Cellular Parameters of Endurance Performance in Amateur Soccer Players
    (2020)
    Wirtz, Nicolas 
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    Filipovic, André 
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    de Marées, Markus 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
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    Donath, Lars 
    Intramuscular density of monocarboxylate-transporter (MCT) could affect the ability to perform high amounts of fast and explosive actions during a soccer game. MCTs have been proven to be essential for lactate shuttling and pH regulation during exercise and can undergo notable adaptational changes depending on training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and direction of potential effects of a 7-weeks training period of jumps with superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation on soccer relevant performance surrogates and MCT density in soccer players. For this purpose, 30 amateur soccer players were randomly assigned to three groups. One group performed dynamic whole-body strength training including 3 x 10 squat jumps with WB-EMS (EG, n = 10) twice a week in addition to their daily soccer training routine. A jump training group (TG, n = 10) performed the same training routine without EMS, whereas a control group (CG, n = 8) merely performed their daily soccer routine. 2 (Time: pre vs. post) x 3 (group: EG, TG, CG) repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) revealed neither a significant time, group nor interaction effect for VO2peak, Total Time to Exhaustion and Lamax as well as MCT-1 density. Due to a lack of task-specificity of the underlying training stimuli, we conclude that seven weeks of WB-EMS superimposed to jump exercise twice a week does not relevantly influence aerobic performance or MCT density.
      8  51
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Superimposed Whole-Body Electrostimulation Augments Strength Adaptations and Type II Myofiber Growth in Soccer Players During a Competitive Season
    (2019)
    Filipovic, André 
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    DeMarees, Markus 
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    Grau, Marijke 
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    Hollinger, Anna 
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    Seeger, Benedikt 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
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    Background The improvement of strength and athletic performance during a competitive season in elite soccer players is a demanding task for the coach. Aims As whole-body electrostimulation (WB-EMS) training provides a time efficient stimulation potentially capable in exerting skeletal muscle adaptations we aimed to test this approach over 7 weeks in trained male soccer players during a competitive season. Hypothesis We hypothesized that a superimposed WB-EMS will increase maximal strength and type I and type II myofiber hypertrophy. Methods Twenty-eight male field soccer players were assigned in either a WB-EMS group (EG, n = 10), a training group (TG, n = 10), or a control group (CG, n = 8). The regular soccer training consists of two to four sessions and one match per week. In concurrent, the EG performed 3 × 10 squat jumps superimposed with WB-EMS twice per week, TG performed 3 × 10 squat jumps without EMS twice per week, and the CG only performed the regular soccer training. Muscle biopsies were collected and strength tests were performed under resting conditions before (Baseline) and after the intervention period (Posttest). Muscle biopsies were analyzed via western blotting and immunohistochemistry for skeletal muscle adaptive responses. To determine the effect of the training interventions a 2 × 3 (time ∗ group) mixed ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted. Results Maximal strength in leg press (p = 0.009) and leg curl (p = 0.026) was significantly increased in EG along with a small but significant increase in type II myofiber diameter (p = 0.023). All of these adaptations were not observed in TG and CG. Conclusion WB-EMS can serve as a time efficient training method to augment strength capacities and type II fiber myofiber growth in soccer players when combined with specific resistance training. This combination may therefore be a promising training modification compared to traditional strength training for performance enhancement.
      3
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    p38 MAPK activation and H3K4 trimethylation is decreased by lactate in vitro and high intensity resistance training in human skeletal muscle
    (2017)
    Willkomm, Lena 
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    Jacko, Daniel 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
    Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs). Lactate (La)-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of La on p38 MAPK and H3K4me3 in a model of activated SCs. Differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were treated with La (20 mM) and samples analysed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We determined a reduction of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, decreased H3K4me3 and reduced expression of Myf5, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) leading to decreased differentiation of La-treated C2C12 cells after 5 days of repeated La treatment. We further investigated whether this regulatory pathway would be affected in human skeletal muscle by the application of two different resistance exercise regimes (RE) associated with distinct metabolic demands and blood La accumulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained 15, 30 min, 1, 4, and 24 h post exercise after moderate intensity RE (STD) vs. high intensity RE (HIT). Consistent with in vitro results, reduced p38 phosphorylation and blunted H3K4me3 were also observed upon metabolically demanding HIT RE in human skeletal muscle. Our data provide evidence that La-accumulation acutely affects p38 MAPK signaling, gene expression and thereby cell differentiation and adaptation in vitro, and likely in vivo.
      2
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Endurance Exercise in Hypoxia, Hyperoxia and Normoxia: Mitochondrial and Global Adaptations
    (2017)
    Przyklenk, Axel 
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    Gutmann, Boris 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Hollmann, Wildor 
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    Strüder, Heiko 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
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    Mierau, Andreas 
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    We hypothesized short-term endurance exercise (EN) in hypoxia (HY) to exert decreased mitochondrial adaptation, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and peak power output (PPO) compared to EN in normoxia (NOR) and hyperoxia (PER). 11 male subjects performed repeated unipedal cycling EN in HY, PER, and NOR over 4 weeks in a cross-over design. VO2peak, PPO, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate (Bla) were determined pre- and post-intervention to assess physiological demands and adaptation. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected to determine molecular mitochondrial signaling and adaptation. Despite reduced exercise intensity (P<0.05), increased Bla and RPE levels in HY revealed higher metabolic load compared to PER (P<0.05) and NOR (n.s.). PPO increased in all groups (P<0.05) while VO2peak and mitochondrial signaling were unchanged (P>0.05). Electron transport chain complexes tended to increase in all groups with the highest increase in HY (n.s.). EN-induced mitochondrial adaptability and exercise capacity neither decreased significantly in HY nor increased in PER compared to NOR. Despite decreased exercise intensity, short term EN under HY may not necessarily impair mitochondrial adaptation and exercise capacity while PER does not augment adaptation. HY might strengthen adaptive responses under circumstances when absolute training intensity has to be reduced.
      2
  • Publication
    Metadata only
    Influence of endurance training on skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins in type 2 diabetic men
    (2017)
    Brinkmann, Christian 
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    Przyklenk, Axel 
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    Metten, Alexander 
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    Schiffer, Thorsten 
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    Bloch, Wilhelm 
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    Brixius, Klara 
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    BACKGROUND Mitophagy is a form of autophagy for the elimination of mitochondria. Mitochondrial content and function are reduced in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Physical training has been shown to restore mitochondrial capacity in T2DM patients, but the role of mitophagy has not been examined in this context. This study analyzes the impact of a 3-month endurance training on important skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in T2DM patients. METHODS Muscle biopsies were obtained from eight overweight/obese T2DM men (61±10 years) at T1 (6 weeks pre-training), T2 (1 week pre-training), and T3 (3 to 4 days post-training). Protein contents were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS The training increased mitochondrial complex II significantly (T2-T3: +29%, p = 0.037). The protein contents of mitophagy regulatory proteins (phosphorylated form of forkhead box O3A (pFOXO3A), mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase-1 (MUL1), Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kD interacting protein-3 (BNIP3), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (the ratio LC3B-II/LC3B-I was determined)) did not differ significantly between T1, T2, and T3. CONCLUSIONS The results imply that training-induced changes in OXPHOS subunits (significant increase in complex II) are not accompanied by changes in mitophagy regulatory proteins in T2DM men. Future studies should elucidate whether acute exercise might affect mitophagic processes in T2DM patients (and whether a transient regulation of mitophagy regulatory proteins is evident) to fully clarify the role of physical activity and mitophagy for mitochondrial health in this particular patient group.
      2